Ah Xian

Green woman

China, China – Bust 80 2004, porcelain in celadon glaze with hand build and pasted lotus design

Ah Xian commenced producing porcelain busts in 1998, after emigrating from China in 1990. The busts are cast from family, friends, and acquaintances, and decorated under his direction by the artisans of Jing de Zhen, a small town renowned for its porcelain. Like a number of other contemporary artists, Ah Xian brings the craftsmanship, expertise, and singularity of ancient traditions to bear upon contemporary art. He employs artisan labour and traditional technique to strident contrary effect; on the one hand, his works are classical sculpture (busts), and on the other, exquisite porcelain. As one looks at them, they shift between two phases or styles, between a human figure and a pot or vase, perhaps ultimately a funerary urn.

Yellow woman web

China, China – Bust 57 2002, porcelain in ‘Jiao Huang’ yellow with relief landscape design (Asia Society collection, New York)

Ah Xian has titled all of his porcelain busts China, China, as in china from China, the material synonymous with the place. In fact, Jing de Zhen was formerly known as ‘Chang Nan’, from which derives the country’s name in English, ‘China’, and also the alias for porcelain, ‘china’. In this sense, Ah Xian’s portraiture returns him and his friends and family – many of them also now departed from China – to the origins of Chinese identity. Ah Xian has used other traditional craft techniques, too, like bronze casting or ox-bone inlay, to render standing, seated, kneeling, and reclining figures.

Landscape face web

China, China – Bust 66 2002, porcelain in overglaze polychrome enamel with landscape design

Thus the extraordinary surface textures and effects – from ceramics to cloisenet to lacquerware to carved jade – which have come to characterise the arts and crafts of China over centuries, also indelibly mark the skin of these figures, the surface of one thing exchanged with another, intensifying their ‘Chinese’ identity.

Dragon face web

China, China – Bust 36 1999, porcelain in overglaze ironred and cobalt-blue with dragon, ocean waves, and clouds design

Although Ah Xian’s works may be ambivalent, first appearing as one thing then another, they are not ironic. Some artists subordinate the best craftspeople to the worst found tastes; for perverse effect they apply virtuoso technique to derided subject matter like kitsch statuary or popular culture. However, Ah Xian’s work doubly resembles the objet d’art. It multiplies and amplifies fine-art and fine-craft techniques in honour of the figurative and decorative traditions of both Eastern and Western sculpture, generating out of this hybridity a kind of transcendental super-beauty.

Yellow man web

China, China – Bust 45 1999, porcelain in low-temperature yellow glaze with carved relief ocean-waves design

In this sense, the work may seem radically traditional, and liberal too, especially because it’s linked by Ah Xian to humanitarian values, to notions of ‘freedom’, ‘liberty’, and ‘democracy’ that might derive from the artist’s experience of Chinese communism. As one of the Diaspora artists, Ah Xian has committed his career to the restoration and further development of Chinese arts and crafts. But curiously, despite China’s abandoning traditional culture during the Cultural Revolution, an export market still flourished, which supported a ‘golden age’ for artisans in government-run craft factories (although nothing like the Qing dynasty). Today, the handcrafts struggle against the ceaseless flow and allure of cheap manufactured goods, and Ah Xian’s labour-intensive, highly skilled works defy the rapid modernisation of most industry in China.

Chrysanthemum web

China, China – Bust 2 1998, porcelain in underglaze copper-red and cobalt-blue with lotus-scroll design

Although the patterning is striking and beautiful, on closer scrutiny it’s also quite abject. The skin of Ah Xian’s figures crawls with calligraphic and pictographic elements drawn from traditional china decoration; clouds, plants, breaking waves, dragons, mountains, birds, insects, flowers. But these motifs alternately appear as pustulating weals from a lash, or bulbous cancerous growths bursting the skin, or inflamed spreading sores. The figures’ eyes are closed so that the intricate patterning can also seem like a deadly illness traced on a stony pallor. And the disease has spread to entirely cover the prone, naked bodies with flinty scales, a leprous crust, whole flanks peeling off like the meaty petals of a dying lotus.

Reclining figure web

Human Human – Scales 2006–7, ox-bone inlay on resin fiberglass body cast with dragon-scale design

And when, only last year, I observed for the first time the best of Jing de Zhen’s ceramics in the Shanghai Museum, alongside jadeware, wrought iron, beaten copper and bronze, I couldn’t help but see these originary vessels as human in form. A fundamental anthropomorphism was revealed, which energises Ah Xian’s work as it has done all ceramics (and probably all of the hand-crafts) since the first of us dipped our ape hands in the primordial mud. We make everything in our own image: the base, the body, the lid, the handles, the inscription—it all corresponds to the human body.

Red kneeling web

Human Human – Landscape 2002–3, carved red lacquer on resin fibreglass with landscape design

I had forgotten that we scratched a face in the dirt before we thumbed our first bowl to carry water; I did, however, recall that the Stone Age comes before the Bronze. But like the Museum, Ah Xian presents these moments simultaneously in a collapsed time and space that does not separate figuration from utility, or political regimes from dynastic rule, or one country – or even one Age – from another, but rather sees in everything a reflection of ourselves, one or another aspect of human endeavour.

Silver woman web

China, China – Bust 73 2002, porcelain in matt-silver finish carved relief with flower-and-butterfly design

These combined moments generate the ceaseless alternation in Ah Xian’s work between national and individual identity, between epochs, between East and West, between sculpture and décor, between his old and new homes, between beauty and death; our enduring human form animates them all.

Butterfly face web

China, China – Bust 14 1999, porcelain in overglaze polychrome enamels with flowers of the four seasons and butterfly design